Priapism is an erection that last for more than four hours. It’s not a common condition, but men who find themselves in this situation should not take it lightly. It’s important to seek emergency care immediately.
Priapism can have a number of causes, including the following:
• Blood disorders, such as sickle cell anemia and leukemia
• Substance abuse, including alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine
• Injury to the genitals, pelvis, or perineum (the area between the base of the penis and the anus)
• Spinal cord injury
• Carbon monoxide poisoning
• Venom from scorpions or black widow spiders
• Blood clots
Priapism can also be a side effect of certain prescription medications, including
• Erectile dysfunction (ED) drugs (oral and injected)
• Mental illness medications
• Blood thinners
• Alpha blockers (sometimes used to treat high blood pressure or an enlarged prostate)
Treatment usually depends on the type of priapism.
Ischemic priapism, in which blood is trapped in the penis and can’t drain out, is an emergency and should be treated as quickly as possible to avoid damage to the penis.
Some common treatments are:
• Aspiration. A small needle and syringe are used to drain the excess blood from the penis. Sometimes, a saline solution is flushed through the penis as well.
• Medication. A drug may be injected into the penis. This drug narrows the blood vessels that let blood in. This makes it easier for the trapped blood to drain out.
• Surgery. A shunt may be implanted so that blood flow can be redirected.
Men with sickle-cell anemia, a common cause of priapism, may be given treatment specifically for that condition.
Nonischemic priapism, when too much blood flows into the penis, may resolve on its own. Some doctors advise putting ice on the perineum. At times, surgery is done to prevent excess blood flow to the penis or to treat damage caused by an injury.