Research Summaries

Research summaries from the International Society of Sexual Medicine.

Recent Research Summaries

Why Do Transgender Women Choose Vulvoplasty?

July 2, 2018

This study discusses the authors’ experiences with performing vulvoplasty along with patients’ satisfaction or regrets about choosing it. It also examines patients’ feelings about vulvoplasty as a non-binary surgical option.

Worldwide Survey Discusses Peyronie’s Disease Surgical Practice Patterns

June 4, 2018

While there are published guidelines for the treatment of Peyronie’s disease (PD), there is no consensus among surgeons on the best strategies. This study examined surgeons’ practice patterns for pre-, intra-, and postoperative PD care in different continents and among members of sexual medicine societies.

Mini-Jupette Graft Addresses Climacturia and Incontinence after Prostatectomy

April 30, 2018

In 2005, Robert Adrianne devised a surgical approach that addresses climacturia, which can be done as an adjunctive procedure to IPP placement. This prospective multicenter, multinational, investigational, pilot study reports on the results of this strategy.

Study Explores Safety and Efficacy of Low-Intensity Shockwave Therapy

March 26, 2018

Low-intensity shockwave therapy (LiST) has been suggested as a treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). However, it is not known whether adding sessions affects efficacy or whether repeating treatment after a break is meaningful if a patient requests it. This study explored these questions in two phases, comparing 6- and 12-session regimens and analyzing the value of a second round of therapy.

Research Summary – Multiple-Slit Technique (MUST) for Penile Implants Needs Further Study

February 26, 2018

This study examined the functional and subjective outcomes in patients who had concomitant length and girth restoration with the multiple-slit technique (MUST.)

Malleable Implants are a Viable, Cost-effective Option for Men with Peyronie’s Disease and ED

January 29, 2018

This study compared the outcomes and satisfaction rates for two types of implant in patients with Peyronie’s Disease and ED.

Study Discusses Penile Prosthesis Implantation in Transgender Men

December 26, 2017

For individuals undergoing a female-to-male gender transitional surgery, one important goal is the creation of a realistic, fully-functioning penis that allows the patient to stand while urinating and penetrate a partner during sexual intercourse. This study discussed the outcomes of PP implantation after total phallic reconstruction in patients with gender dysphoria.

Researchers Discuss CCH Treatment with Vacuum Therapy for Men with Peyronie’s Disease

November 27, 2017

This prospective, randomized, open-label pilot study explored the effects of vacuum-pump therapy, with and without penile modeling, in men receiving Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH). The authors noted that penile modeling and vacuum therapy “share underlying physiologic mechanisms.”

Review Discusses Pain Management for Men Receiving Penile Implants

October 30, 2017

While medical literature has addressed pain management for some urologic procedures (such as cystectomies and radical prostatectomies), little has been documented concerning pain management in penile prosthetics.

Several Anatomic Sites, Clinical Factors Related to Deep Dyspareunia

October 2, 2017

Deep dyspareunia refers to pelvic pain with intercourse and can negatively affect a woman’s sexual function, relationships, and quality of life. Often, it is caused by endometriosis, but it might also stem from contact with other pelvic structures near the vagina, such as the bladder, pelvic floor muscles, cervix, uterus, and adnexa.

Testosterone Levels May Decline, Then Recover, After External Beam Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

September 4, 2017

The current study focused on testosterone kinetics after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in contemporary patients with localized prostate cancer. The authors hypothesized that these patients would have less significant decreases in serum testosterone and duration when compared to men in the previous studies.

V-Neck Technique Offers Possible Solution to Tubing Problem in IPP Placement

August 7, 2017

The study discusses the V-neck technique (VNT), a modification to the traditional infra-pubic approach that may improve appearance and comfort in men with IPPs.

3D Photography Useful for Assessment of Peyronie’s Disease

July 3, 2017

This proof-of-concept study discusses the ways three-dimensional (3D) photographs might be used to develop metrics for describing volume-loss deformities in men with Peyronie's disease (PD).

Treatment With CCH Could Benefit Both Men With Peyronie’s Disease and Their Partners

June 5, 2017

The current study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of CCH in men who received placebo treatments in the IMPRESS I and II studies. It also analyzed the perspectives of female partners.

Experts Discuss Grafting Techniques for Peyronie’s Disease Treatment

May 8, 2017

This study reviewed eleven relevant articles published between 2011 and June 2016 covering surgical treatment of Peyronie’s disease (PD) via grafting after partial plaque excision or incision.

Scientists Determine Harmonized Reference Ranges for Testosterone

April 3, 2017

This study aimed to generate consensus reference ranges for total testosterone using data from four epidemiologic studies of men in the United States and Europe.

Ipsilateral Placement of Prosthetic Balloons Could Be Viable Approach in Dual Prosthetic Surgery

February 27, 2017

This study examines the relationship between the SIHSM method and rates of mechanical failure or complications.

Vacuum Therapy a “Successful Preoperative Regimen” for Men with Corporal Fibrosis

January 30, 2017

This study evaluates an alternative surgical procedure for men with corporal fibrosis. The studied option involves the preoperative use of daily vacuum therapy.

What Factors Predict Sexual Distress?

January 2, 2017

An estimated 40% to 45% of adult women have at least one type of sexual dysfunction, but not all of them feel distress over their situation. Past research has suggested that sexual problems and sexual distress don’t always have the same predictors. This study analyzed whether predictors of general distress in women also predict sexual distress. The researchers also distinguished between three types of sexual distress: personal, perceived partner, and interpersonal.

No Significant Differences in Sexual Function: Hypofractionated and Conventional Radiotherapy

November 28, 2016

Past trials on the effects of hypofractionation on sexual function have had mixed results. This study, part of the HYpofractionated irradiation for PROstate cancer (HYPRO) trial in the Netherlands, addressed this concern.

Local Treatment of Penile Implant Infection May Be Viable Alternative to Reimplantation and Salvage

October 31, 2016

While most implantations of inflatable penile prostheses (IPP) go smoothly, a percentage of cases develop infections. Some men, such as those with immune- compromising conditions, may be more prone to infection. This study investigated an alternative which could allow for treatment without IPP removal and described two cases of local scrotal infection after IPP implantation.

Sickle Cell Disease Among Top Risk Factors for Priapism Readmission

September 26, 2016

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the strongest risk factors for priapism, accounting to 11% to 42% of events. Other common risk factors include drug and alcohol abuse, trauma, spinal cord injury, and medication use.

GnRHa Treatment Considered Safe and Effective for Gender Dysphoric Adolescents

August 29, 2016

The current study aimed to determine the efficacy of GnRHa treatment in this population in relation to Tanner stage, gonadotropins, and sex steroids. It also investigated the treatment’s effects on liver enzymes, renal function, and changes in body composition.

Testosterone Therapy Improves Ejaculatory Function in Hypogonadal Men

July 25, 2016

Testosterone solution 2% is often prescribed to treat testosterone deficiency. This study aimed to determine whether testosterone replacement therapy could improve ejaculatory function in men with hypogonadism.

Changing Definitions of Erectile Recovery Has “No Major Impact” in REACCT Trial

July 5, 2016

The current study explores a different definition used for recovery of erectile function. The authors wanted to see whether patients’ function returned to its pre-surgery levels (IIEF-EF scores either in the 22-25 range or 26 or higher).

Study: Tadalafil Recommended for Men with ED and BPH/LUTS, Regardless of Total Testosterone Levels

May 30, 2016

The study investigated whether baseline hormone levels play a role in sexual response to the PDE5i tadalafil in men with LUTS-BPH and ED. The researchers concluded that baseline total testosterone levels do not impact the response of tadalafil in these men.

Erectile Function in Men Following Radical Prostatectomy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

April 25, 2016

This study aimed to determine how well the erectile function of men with HRPC returned to baseline after undergoing robotic radical prostatectomy (RRP). It also considered the factors affecting erectile function after RRP in this population and offers recommendations for clinicians.

Melatonin Improves Erectile Function in Rats With Chronic Lower Body Ischemia

March 28, 2016

This study investigates whether treatment with melatonin can reduce damage and improve function in rats with chronic lower body ischemia-induced ED.

10 Years’ Plaque Incision and Vein Grafting for Peyronie’s Disease: Does Time Matter?

February 29, 2016

This study aimed to examine the influence of age, comorbidities, severity of disease, and natural history of PD on patients’ long term outcomes and satisfaction after plaque incision and vein grafting for PD.

Intravaginal Prasterone and Sexual Dysfunction in Postmenopausal Women with Vulvovaginal Atrophy

February 1, 2016

Sexual dysfunction is common among postmenopausal women. However, past studies have shown sexual improvements in women who receive local DHEA. Symptoms of vaginal atrophy also improved for these women.

A Urologist’s Guide to Ingredients Found in Top-Selling Nutraceuticals for Men’s Sexual Health

January 4, 2016

This study provides an overview of the most common ingredients found in male sexual enhancement products.

Sexual Dysfunction in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

December 1, 2015

This study is a meta-analysis intended to clarify the association of OSA and sexual dysfunction.

Risk of Damage to the Somatic Innervation of the Penis during the AdVance™ Procedure

October 26, 2015

The study authors sought to define the anatomical relationship between the AdVance™ male sling procedure and penile nerves using a cadaveric model.

Intravenous Preload of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Rescues Erectile Function in a Rat Model of Cavernous

September 28, 2015

This study investigated whether intravenously delivered mesenchymal stem cells could reduce postoperative ED in rats if administered before cavernous nerve injury.

Male-to-Female Genital Reassignment Surgery: A Retrospective Review

August 31, 2015

This study examined the experiences of 60 patients who underwent vaginoplasty from 2008 to 2013.

Combination of Dapoxetine and Behavioral Treatment for Management of Lifelong Premature Ejaculation

August 4, 2015

Combining medication with sex therapy has not been widely studied, although past research has shown that combining approaches was more effective than medication alone. To date, no study has investigated the potential benefits of adding sex therapy to treatment with dapoxetine. In this study, the researchers hypothesized that combining dapoxetine with behavioral therapy would yield better results for men with PE than dapoxetine alone.

PRT and the Sexual Function of Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (POS)

July 6, 2015

Past studies have shown that physical resistance training (PRT) can benefit the health of women with PCOS, but until this study, there was little research on PRT’s effects on sexual functioning.

Are Primary and Secondary Provoked Vestibulodynia Two Different Entities?

June 8, 2015

The goal of this study was to compare the sexual and psychological aspects of PVD1 and PVD2 in premenopausal women. The researchers also wanted to learn more about the clinical implications of such a comparison.

Prevalence of Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders in Subjects with Erectile Dysfunction

May 5, 2015

The current study compared the prevalence of endocrine and metabolic disorders in two populations from the same geographic area (Florence, Italy).

Responsiveness of the Peyronie’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ)

March 30, 2015

The Peyronie’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ) is a self-administered PRO that measures psychosexual consequences and treatment outcomes of PD. This study examined the responsiveness of the PDQ.

Relaxant and Antioxidant Capacity of the Red Wine Polyphenols, Resveratrol and Quercetin

February 23, 2015

Resveratrol and quercetin can relax arteries by activating the nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) pathway. Resveratrol and quercetin can also reduce oxidative stress. Given these qualities, the two polyphenols could be helpful in treating erectile dysfunction (ED).

Is There a Correlation Between Androgens and Sexual Desire in Women?

January 19, 2015

In this study, the researchers questioned whether levels of circulating androgens (including ADT-G) and 17b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity would correlate with sexual desire in women overall and at certain life stages.

Intra-Abdominal Reservoir Placement and RALP

January 1, 2012

RALP procedure involves anatomic changes that are different from traditional retropubic radical prostatectomy.

Female Sexual Function During Pregnancy and Postpartum

December 9, 2011

For many women, sex is a healthy part of pregnancy...

Breast Cancer and Sexuality: Multi-modal Treatment Options

May 21, 2012

Sexuality for women who have had breast cancer is an important issue...

Incomplete Recovery of Erectile Function in Rats after Discontinuation of 5ARIs Therapy

December 7, 2011

For rats, long-term 5ARI treatment increases the risk of ED because of changes in relaxant and contractile responses of penile tissue...

The Role of Left Superior Parietal Lobe in Male Sexual Behavior

July 16, 2012

While many neuroimaging studies have shed light on the brain correlates of male sexual behavior, few have looked at brain activity when men’s sexual arousal is inhibited, particularly in the case of psychogenic erectile dysfunction (ED).

Is Testosterone Treatment Good for the Prostate? Study of Safety During Long-Term Treatment

December 5, 2011

For some time, there has been concern among physicians that testosterone therapy either leads to prostate cancer or causes undiagnosed prostate cancer to progress. These beliefs have been shown to be a myth; however, many physicians still cite this concern as the main reason for not prescribing testosterone therapy. The current study aimed to address these concerns and describe the long-term outcomes for 1,365 men who tried different forms of testosterone therapy as part of the UK Androgen Study (UKAS).

The Recurrent Pain and Sexual Sequelae of Provoked Vestibulodynia: A Perpetuating Cycle

September 12, 2012

Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is characterized by pain, tenderness, and redness in the vestibule of the vaginal area. It affects around 12% of women and can be triggered by contact with various stimuli, such as a penis, dildo, speculum, feminine hygiene product, or tight clothing. It is not uncommon for women with PVD to develop sexual dysfunction and to lose interest in even nonpenetrative sex. This study aims to discuss chronic pain in the context of PVD, analyze PVD’s chronicity and negative sexual sequelae, and examine the roles that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and mindfulness practice can play in PVD’s treatment.

A New Device for Simultaneous Measurement of Pelvic Floor Muscle Activity and Vaginal Blood Flow

October 30, 2012

Dyspareunia in women, characterized by recurrent and persistent genital pain at intercourse, is believed to be associated with pelvic floor hyperactivity and decreased sexual arousal. At present, no device exists that can measure pelvic floor activity and genital arousal simultaneously. This study reports on a new vaginal device that can take both measurements at the same time.

Common Pitfalls in Some of the Experimental Studies in Erectile Function and Dysfunction

December 2, 2011

Since the 1980s, the number of studies on the physiology of erectile function and the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction (ED) has grown substantially. The risk of mistakes in research techniques has accompanied this growth. This review discusses common mistakes to help other scientists and researchers, especially those who are new to the field.

Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

January 15, 2013

Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined in one entity. Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a new entity which is suggested to be defined as Restless Genital Syndrome.

Is There a Relationship Between Chronic Periodontitis and Erectile Dysfunction?

March 4, 2013

Researchers have found a high prevalence of chronic periodontitis (CP) in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and a strong relationship between the two conditions. However, it is not known how the severity and type of CP affects erectile function. This case-controlled study looked at the relationship between the severity of ED and CP and the correlation between clinical periodontal parameters and ED.

Flibanserin Treatment Increases Appetitive Sexual Motivation in the Female Rat

April 24, 2013

The drug flibanserin is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of HSDD and is showing some encouraging results in premenopausal women, including improved sexual desire and an increase in the number of satisfying sexual events. The current study aimed to investigate how acute and chronic doses of flibanserin affected sexual behavior in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats who have been primed with either a combination of estradiol benzoate (EB) and progesterone (P) [Experiment 1] or estradiol benzoate (EB) alone [Experiment 2].

Standard Operating Procedures for Neurophysiologic Assessment of Male Sexual Dysfunction

May 29, 2013

To assess erectile dysfunction, standard operating procedure should include: • Investigation of the neural control of the tone of smooth muscle cells of the erectile tissue and the penile arterial supply • Assessment of penile sensory innervation

Sexual Function in Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Report from Project REACH

November 27, 2012

Because childhood cancer survivors have a higher risk of sexual dysfunction, the authors of this study aimed to describe the sexual health issues and investigate how these problems affect general health and well-being. They also wanted to see how specific treatments affected physiological functions needed for good sexual health.

Relationship between Sexual Dysfunction and Psychological Burden in Men with Infertility

August 13, 2013

The goals of this study were to determine the incidence of sexual and psychological problems for infertile men in China and to learn more about their possible associations in this population.

Exploring Co-Parent Experiences of Sexuality in the First 3 Months after Birth

September 16, 2013

When couples become parents, a number of adjustments are made, including a sexual compromise. Past research has focused mainly on the new mothers, but the dynamics between the mother and her partner plays a role in sexual feelings and activities. This study examines postpartum sexuality in the couple per se.

The Erectile Performance Anxiety Index: Scale Development and Psychometric Properties

October 15, 2013

A common condition, erectile dysfunction (ED) affects men psychologically and emotionally as well as physically. Research has shown that men with ED are not as happy in their romantic relationships when compared to men without ED. In addition, sexual dysfunction tends to be more prevalent among women whose partners have ED.

Breast Cancer Development in Transsexual Subjects Receiving Cross-Sex Hormone Treatment

November 24, 2013

In this study, researchers examined breast cancer incidence in transsexual people who were taking cross-sex hormones. This treatment, along with surgery, allows patients to transition to the opposite sex, one to which they feel they belong.

Nonresponders, Partial Responders, and Complete Responders to PDE5 Inhibitors Therapy

December 30, 2013

The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) is considered the “gold standard” tool for assessing erectile dysfunction (ED). While categories of ED severity have been suggested based on the IIEF, there is currently no standard way to evaluate minimal clinically important difference (MCID) or define an ED treatment responder. As a result, there is no objective way to determine whether ED treatment is effective.

The Efficacy and Safety of Ospemifene in Treating Dyspareunia

February 2, 2014

The present study is a meta-analysis focusing on the safety and efficacy of ospemifene to treat dyspareunia associated with postmenopausal vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA).

Lack of Sexual Privacy Affects Psychological and Marital Domains of Male Sexual Dysfunction

March 10, 2014

Insufficient privacy during sex is one of the most common issues that can interfere with a couple’s intimacy and sexual function. For example, lack of privacy may be an issue for young people who live with their parents or with roommates. It can also affect parents who have children at home. Assessments of sexual function do not usually include items on sexual privacy. This study examined the issue in a large sample of men who were consulting for sexual dysfunction.

Weaker Masturbatory Erection May Be a Sign of Early CV Risk Associated with ED in Young Men

April 11, 2014

Some young men have weaker masturbatory erections with no sexual intercourse (WME-NS). Many professionals believe ED in younger men is psychogenic and do not investigate other risk factors. This study aimed to determine whether underlying risk factors exist in men with WME-NS and whether such risk factors are similar to those of men with identified ED.

Tadalafil Effect on Metabolic Syndrome-Associated Bladder Alterations

May 15, 2014

The aim of this study was to examine the acute (curative) effect of tadalafil dosing on Met-S associated increased signaling of RhoA/ROCK in the bladder.

Female Partner’s Perception of Premature Ejaculation and Its Impact

June 23, 2014

Women’s perceptions of PE have not been widely researched. Recent studies have had mixed results. Examining these issues more closely could help clinicians better understand the physical, psychological, and interpersonal aspects of PE for couples.

The Effect of Vasectomy on the Sexual Life of Couples

July 28, 2014

The goal of this study was to examine the effects on vasectomy on the sexual function of couples.

Association of PCOS and Its Clinical Signs with Sexual Function among Iranian Women Affected by PCOS

September 2, 2014

"Considering the effect of cultural and religious backgrounds of females suffering from PCOS and the lack of knowledge regarding sexual function in Muslim women affected by PCOS, the present study seemed necessary..."

Postprostatectomy ED: Potential of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells-Based Micro-Tissues in a Rat Model

October 6, 2014

Assembling cells onto micro-tissues before transplanting them could be a more viable strategy for restoring postprostatectomy erectile function than single-cell methods.

Estrogen Mediates Metabolic Syndrome-Induced Erectile Dysfunction: A Study in the Rabbit

November 10, 2014

This study examined the role of estrogens in erectile dysfunction associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in rabbits.

Pelvic Examination Experiences in Women With and Without Chronic Pain During Intercourse

November 12, 2011

While pelvic examinations (PEs) are important for women’s gynecological health, many patients approach them with anxiety and distress. These feelings may stem from past negative experiences with PEs.